Vegetable kingdom

Vegetable kingdom

Persina Nature Park falls in the Danube biogeography sub region, part of European – West -Siberian Region of the Paleo - Arctic biogeographically realm. Over 743 higher plant species inhabit the Park territory. Most of them are connected with the availability of water. The internal marshes contain typical marsh communities – Yellow Water lily (Nuphar lutea), Broad-Leaved Pondweed (Patamogeton natans), Yellow Floating-Heart (Nymphoides peltata), Frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae) and Water Chestnut (Trapa natans) in the shallow parts. The marshes have an uneven cover of Reed (Trapa natans), Simplestem Bur-Reed (Sparganium erectum), Common Water-Plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica) etc...

 The dominating habits are the natural flooded forests of willow (Salix sp.) and White Poplar (Populus Alba), and on Milka Island – of White Elm (Ulmus laevis). Their formation is directly linked to the water regime of the river. Coastal areas subject of flooding are characterized by different formations of White Willow (Salix Alba), Three-Stamens Willow (Salix triandra) and Osier (Salix purpurea). Parts of tree communities are Black and White Poplar (Populus nigra, Populus Alba), Field Ash Tree (Fraksis oxycarpa), Field Elm and White Elm (Ulmus minor, Ulmus laevis). The unique dense nature of these communities is due to the well developed climbing steams of Wild Grape and Hops (Vitis silvesths, Humulus luputus).

Some of the bush vegetation species in the natural forests are: Dewberry (Rubus caesius), Hawthorn (Crataegus monogina), Dogwood (Cornus sanguinea), Guelder Rose (Viburnum opulus), cornel (Euonimus europeus) and amorphous (Amorpha fruticosa). Тhe open spaces are occupied mainly of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), Frail (Stripus mishelianus) and etc... 

The open spaces are occupied main by couch grass (Cynodon dactylon), Redtop (Agrostis alba) and etc... There is a great variety of vegetation. The most common species are: Verbascum blataria, V. Phlomoides,V. lyhnitis,Elymus repens, Hordeum murinum, Sclerohloa dura, Poa pratense, Poa compressa, Bromus molis, Bromus sterilis.

 Nature Park Persin is an important place for conservation the population of vegetation species, included in application 1 of the Berne Convention like Salvinia (Salvinia natans), Water caltrop (Trapa natans), Four Leaf Clover (Marsilea quadrifolia) or the written in the Red Data Book of Bulgaria like Fringed Water-lily (Nymphoides poltata), Common Bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris), European White Water-lily (Nymphaea alba), Yellow Water-lily (Nuphar lutea) and etc...
Animal species

Animal species

In zoogeographic respect the territory of Persina Nature Park is in the Danube region of the European – West-Siberian Region. In the Park there are 1100 animal species, including 250 zoo-plankton and 99 zoo-benthos species, over 770 kinds of invertebrates with 35 snails species and 16 kinds of mussels. Widely distributed fishes are: The Danube Barbel (Barbus barbus), The Burbot (Lota lota), The Blue Bream (Abramis balerus), The Saber Carp (Pelecus cultratos), The Steber and the Zingel (Zingel steber and Zingel zingel) and The Ruff (Aserina cernua). There are 11 species amphibians, widely distributed are: The Eurasian Marsh Frog (Rana ridibunda), Edible Frog (Rana esculenta), The Common Toad (Bufo bufo), The Fire-bellied Toad (Bombina bombina) and The European Tree Frog (Hyla arborea). Only here you can see The Danube Crested Newt (Triturus cristatus dobrogicus). From the reptiles the most common species are: The Water Snake (Natrix natrix), The Balkan wall lizard (Podarcis Tauricus), The Dwarf sand boa (Eryx milliaris). There are 3 kinds terrapins: The Mediterranean Spur Thigh (Testudo graeca), The Western Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni) and European Pond Turtle (Emys orbicularis).

 The biggest fortunes of the Park are the birds. They've been written over 200 species and almost all of them have conservation statute. Belene Island Complex is definite like one of the five most important for the regions inhabitance of The Great Cormorant (Phalacrokorax carbo), The Pygmy Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmeus), The Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), The Squacco Heron (Ardeola ralloides), The Little Egret (Egretta gatzetta), The Great Egret (Egretta alba), The Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea), The Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), Glossy Ibises (Plegadis falcneus), The Ferruginous Duck (Aythya nyroca),The Common and The Little Tern. In the past (1969-1971) here was one of the biggest herons colonies, which vanished because of anxiety and disturbance in the food balance after the building of a dike on the island. Now there is a mixed colony situated on one of the Romanian islands (on the 573 km, opposite the nose of the Golyama Burzina Island) consisted of The Great Cormorant (Phalacrokorax carbo), The Pygmy Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmeus), The Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), The Squacco Heron (Ardeola ralloides), The Little Egret (Egretta gatzetta) and The Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia). It is consider that this colony is heir apparent of the one on Persina Island in the 1970s of the XX century and there is a great chance to return, if the wetlands are restored.

AnimaAnimal speciesl species

On the territory of the Persina Nature Park they are registered 5 nests of The White-tailed Sea-eagle (Haliaetus albicilla) and two couples of this species. Belene Island Complex is definite as one of the fifty ornithological important places in Bulgaria. It is designated for a Ramsar site in September 2002, the biggest in Bulgaria with length 6898 ha. The great number of birds that are breeding, spending the winter and resting in the time of migration characterize it like ornithological important place with significance for whole Europe. Persina Nature Park is "home" for world Endangered Species like: The Pygmy Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmeus), The Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis), The Ferruginous Duck (Aythya nyroca), The Corn Crake (Crex crex), Dalmatian Pelican (Pelicanus crispus), The Marsh Warbler (Acrocephalus palustris) and etc...